The eyes are some of the most important sensory organs, at the same time, the
most delicate parts of the human body. While it has reflexes that protect it from dirt and foreign body, this defense is relatively incapable of protecting the eyes from other major injuries. As a matter of fact, eye injuries commonly lead to serious complications that include blindness. There are different types of eye injuries that a person can sustain. Here are some of the commonly seen injuries to the eyes:
- Foreign objects – Any small object can enter into the eyes. Although most foreign objects to the eye do not normally lead to serious problems, they can cause a great degree of discomfort. Usually, the eyes become reddened (bloodshot eyes) and water heavily with tears, accompanied with excessive blinking. Tears often feel slippery.
- Contusions – These refers to closed wound injuries that may or may not cause damage to the eyelids. The person may complain of dull pain and blurry vision. If the person complains of trouble seeing or double vision, the eyes should be examined for possible serious complications. The eye and its surrounding area may appear reddened or swollen. If there is blood spot or damaged blood vessel in the white area of the eyes, immediate medical attention is necessary. Call 911 or bring the patient to the nearest emergency department. If possible, keep the patient in a semiseated position to lower pressure to the eyes and control bleeding.
- Abrasions – Foreign objects can cause minor scratches to the surface of the eyes. Abrasions to the eye can be very minimal and hardly noticeable. When evaluating the person, be sure to look for major scratches to the colored portion of the eyes (cornea). It should appear smooth, clear, continuous, and lubricated. Do not touch the cornea or attempt to remove foreign body. It is recommended to keep both eyes shut to prevent further scratches.
- Lacerations – Sharp objects can cause lacerations to the eyelids, cornea and sclera. Check the entire eyes for possible cuts. Lacerated eyes must be considered as serious and require immediate first aid, since deep cuts can cause the fluid inside the eyes to leak out.
- Avulsions – This refers to the eyes that have been torn out of the socket. Check if the eyeballs protrude out of the skull. This can be a very painful injury. The patient may or may not be able to see through the affected eye.
- Punctured wounds – In some cases, a punctured eye may appear as a simple abrasion. When evaluating a person who has sustained eye injury, make sure to consider the mechanism of injury. Puncture wound to the eye should be considered as serious. Make sure to check for possible impaled objects or embedded foreign body.
Burns – Burns to the eye are very painful. Depending on the severity of the burn, the person may report extreme pain. Usually, eye tissues are high damaged or irritated. The eyelashes often appear burnt.